Oct 112016
 
 October 11, 2016

Duke University is supporting an innovative approach to generating knowledge in the service of society through a combined seminar course and international workshop that will explore the intricacies and outcomes of one of the most impactful and contested approaches to environmental protection of our age: payments for ecosystem services (PES).   

Based on a model of student-led learning, the spring 2017 seminar course will introduce advanced undergraduate and graduate students the theory and practice of PES, as well as the ways in which this approach to environmental protection has been contested and altered. A three-day international workshop, April 10 to 12, will bring together practitioners and scholars who have been integrally involved in implementing and conducting research on six of the longest standing PES initiatives in the Global South, collaborating with each other and with a range of scholars and students of PES at Duke and beyond. Combining multidisciplinary perspectives and grounded experience, teams of practitioners, scholars and students will work together to characterize the origins and dynamics of alternative discourses of PES and the ways in which they have altered the conformations of each of these initiatives.

The outcomes of the workshop will include written policy briefs developed by each team, a journal special issue or book, and further collaborations amongst the formed network of workshop participants.

Hosted by: The Kenan Institute for Ethics

Sponsors: Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Duke Office of Global AffairsDuke University Africa Initiative, Duke Tropical Conservation Initiative, Global Brazil Lab at the Franklin Humanities Institute, Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Nicholas School of the Environment

Contacts: Email Kate Abendroth or Elizabeth Shapiro-Garza with questions about the course, workshop or on the application process for both.

Payments for ecosystem services (PES) provide financial incentives to landowners to manage ecosystems in ways that are thought to produce environmental benefits: greenhouse gas sequestration, biodiversity conservation, or cleaner and/or greater quantities of water downstream. Based on a neoclassical economic model of direct, voluntary transactions and promoted as more efficient and effective than government regulation, PES and other “market-based” approaches have dominated the discourse of multilateral lending institutions, environmental NGOs and government agencies since the 1990s. PES initiatives have been implemented at multiple scales in countries throughout the Global South, however, few, if any, existing initiatives conform to the original model. The ways in which the conceptualization and implementation of PES has been altered by grounded political, economic and cultural context is vitally important for theorizing alternative logics of the value of nature and for the pragmatic goals of designing policies with positive environmental and social outcomes.

While some critics have rejected the concept and practice of PES outright, others have instead worked to directly contest and modify the neoclassical economic model through the development and promotion of alternative discourses. These discourses tend to make explicit the complexity of values humans can hold for healthy ecosystems, to calculate the value of ecosystem services not only based on what the prices the market will support, but on the labor and stewardship required to produce them, and the reciprocal relationship between rural producers and urban consumers of ecosystem services. These alternative discourses have, in many cases, had significant impact on the ways in which PES policies and initiatives have been designed and implemented in their countries of origin, but have been under-documented and under-explored in both the gray and academic literatures.

Structure

In order to begin to characterize the dynamics and outcomes of these alternative discourses of PES, this workshop will bring together practitioners and scholars who have been integrally involved in implementing and/or researching six of the longest standing PES initiatives in the Global South into collaboration with each other and with a diversity of scholars and students of PES at Duke University and beyond. Combining multidisciplinary perspectives and grounded experience, teams of practitioners, scholars and students organized around each case study will work together to:

Before the workshop

  • Develop initial case studies of each of the six PES initiatives. This will primarily be accomplished by the students with some input from the associated practitioners and scholars.

During and directly after the workshop

  • Collaboratively characterize the origins and substance of alternative discourses of PES related to the case study of focus and the ways in which these discourses have altered the design and implementation of the initiative and apply relevant theory to explain these dynamics.
  • Work with the larger group to bring the lessons learned from the six cases to bear on the development of a holistic understanding of the dynamics and influence of alternative discourses in PES.
  • Develop with your case study team a co-authored policy white paper and a short presentation to share your findings more broadly.

Longer term

  • Develop a journal special issue or book based on the findings at the workshop combined with some follow-up investigations.
  • Support further collaborations and cross-learning amongst the formed network of workshop participants.

Proposed Case Studies

While we are interested in exploring alternative discourses of PES broadly, the following six initiatives have been selected as the primary focus of the workshop:

Alternative Discourses of Payments for Ecosystem Services in the Global South

Spring 2017

ENV 590.45S

Thursdays, 3:05-5:55pm

Instructor: Dr. Elizabeth Shapiro-Garza

This innovative spring 2017 seminar course will introduce advanced undergraduate and graduate students to both the theory and practice of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) as well as the various ways in which this influential approach to environmental protection has been contested and altered. The course will intersect with an international workshop on Alternative Discourses of PES in the Global South that will be held at Duke April 10-12, 2017. Students will have the opportunity to collaborate with scholars and practitioners involved in researching and implementing the six PES initiatives and with scholars of PES from Duke and beyond to produce publishable policy white papers.

The course is structured as a seminar on a model of student-led learning, which means that we expect that students will both contribute to the structure of the course and participate actively in the intellectual development of the themes and topics we address. It also follows the model of case-based learning, through which students are asked to apply the theory and concepts learned in class to one of six PES case studies, articulating what they have learned about the subtle dynamics of how those theories and concepts manifest on the ground.

PES initiatives provide financial incentives to landowners to manage ecosystems in ways that are thought to produce environmental benefits: greenhouse gas sequestration, biodiversity conservation, or cleaner and/or greater quantities of water downstream. Based on a neoclassical economic model of direct, voluntary transactions and promoted as more efficient and effective than government regulation, PES and other “market-based” approaches have dominated the discourse of environmental NGOs and government agencies since the 1990s. The policies and initiatives based on this model of PES have been critiqued by both academics and practitioners, grounded on both observations of their inability to achieve stated goals of environmental protection and on moral arguments regarding whose values are privileged in these schemes and ethical arguments concerning the possibilities for disenfranchisement of the poor. While some critics have rejected the concept and practice of PES outright, others have instead worked to directly contest and modify the original model through the development and promotion of alternative discourses. These discourses tend to make explicit the complexity of values humans can hold for healthy ecosystems, to calculate the value of ecosystem services not based on the prices the market will support, but on the labor and stewardship required of the rural poor to produce them, and the reciprocal relationship between rural producers and urban consumers of ecosystem services. These alternative discourses have, in many cases, had significant impact on the ways in which PES policies and initiatives have been designed and implemented in their countries of origin, but have been vastly under-documented and under-explored in both the gray and academic literatures.

Draft Syllabus: Alternative Discourses of PES Syllabus Sp 2017 REVISED

Brazil

Christine Folch – Christine.folch@duke.edu

Juliano Correa – juliano.correa@outlook.com

Nicholle Etchart – netchart@wisc.edu

Nicolle Etchart is a PhD student in Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She studies environmental governance in Latin America. Her research focuses on the role of forest conservation economic incentives in the enforcement of environmental laws and in the ways that forest dwellers procure their livelihoods. Before starting the PhD at UW-Madison, she lived in Quito, Ecuador for five years, during which she completed an M.A. in Anthropology at FLACSO-Ecuador and studied the politics of petroleum extraction and environmental injustice in Ecuador’s northern Amazon.

Jean Carlos Rodriguez de Francisco – jean.rodriguez@die-gdi.de

Paulina Arroyo – paulina.arroyo@duke.edu

Virgilio Viana – virgilio.viana2@fas-amazonas.org

Virgilio Viana has had four different professional career pathways. In academia, he is a forester (ESALQ) and holds a PhD in evolutionary biology from Harvard University. He was a visiting professor at University of Florida, Yale  and Santa Barbara (UCSB) and was a tenured professor at ESALQ/University of São Paulo, from 1989 to 2009. His research focused on management of natural forests (caixeta swamps, forest fragments, community forestry) and sustainable development. Virgilio published more than 10 books and hundreds of papers and articles, as well served as advisor to a large number of undergraduate and over 30 graduate students. He is currently an international fellow at IIED (UK) and a guest professor at Amazonian Research Institute (INPA).

In 2003, he became the first ever Secretary for Environment and Sustainable Development of Amazonas, the Brazilian State with the largest forest cover. He  coordinated a pioneering cross sectorial policy of sustainable development – Zona Franca Verde. Amazonas State enacted the first climate change law in Brazil and implemented a number of other pioneering policy initiatives, which led to the reduction of deforestation rate by more than 70% and increased protected areas by more than 12 million hectares. After leaving office Virgilio has provided advice to countries like Mozambique and governments of other Amazonian states, like Amapá, and also served as chair of the Task Force of Governors on REDD+.

As a civil society activist, Virgilio led the consultation in Brazil in the process of creation of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) in 1993. He was founder and president at IMAFLORA, the first forest certification organization in Latin America. He also participated in the creation of IPÊ, FUNBIO, Instituto Terra and IDESAM. Since 2008 he is the CEO of Amazonas Sustainable Foundation (FAS), which he was one of the mentors. FAS has grown to be one of the largest Brazilian NGOs and is responsible to implement one of the largest program of payments for ecosystem services (PES) in the world. This REDD+ program (Bolsa Floresta) benefits over 570 local communities, 9,000 families and 10 million hectares of Amazonian rainforest.

As an international expert Virgilio has served in a number of committees and task forces. At present he is a member of World Economic Forum (WEF)´s Global Agenda Council on Poverty and Sustainable Development, DFID´s International Advisory Board of ESPA Program and a member of the Consultative Board of Royal Society´s Human Resilience Project. Virgilio is also a co-chair of Forests, Oceans, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services of UN´s Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), as well as chair of SDSN-Amazon.

Ecuador

Margaret Holland is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Geography & Environmental Systems at University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Prior to her arrival at UMBC in the fall of 2011, she received her PhD from the Nelson Institute at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2009, and subsequently held a postdoctoral fellowship through the Land Tenure Center at UW-Madison, with support from Conservation International. She identifies as a human-environment geographer, with more than fifteen years of experience conducting research in Central America and Ecuador. Research in Mesoamerica has focused on assessing the influence of protected areas on forests and livelihoods, along with a more recent emphasis on analyzing the adaptive capacity of smallholder farming communities to impacts from changing climatic conditions. Her work in Ecuador focuses on impacts (on land and livelihoods) related to forest conservation programs, including Socio Bosque, as well as various initiatives to secure land tenure. Dr. Holland has long-term research collaborations with Conservation International (including CI-Ecuador), Ecolex (Ecuador), CATIE (Costa Rica), and the Ministry of Environment’s SINAC (Costa Rica). Her teaching at UMBC includes courses on natural resource management, applications of GIS in human-environment systems, a special topics course on conservation and development in the tropics, and a field course in Costa Rica.

For more information about her work, visit her website.

Monserrat Alban – malban@conservation.org

Hugo Romero-Saltos – hromero@yachaytech.edu.ec

Hugo Romero-Saltos is a plant ecologist who has mostly worked in the lowland tropical rainforests of Ecuador (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hugo_Romero-Saltos). He has collaborated with Yasuní´s 50-ha permanent vegetation research plot (http://www.ctfs.si.edu/site/Yasuni). His experience includes on-ground estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes, liana ecology, stable isotopes in plant ecophysiology, and the conservation of wild and domesticated species from Ecuador.

Gabriela Valdivia – valdivia@email.unc.edu

Leah Bremer – lbremer@stanford.edu

Leah Bremer is Conservation Scientist with the Natural Capital Project at Stanford University where she works with on-the-ground partners to strengthen monitoring and evaluation of the hydrologic and socio-economic outcomes of water funds in Latin America. Her doctoral work focused on the joint socio-economic and biophysical outcomes of Ecuador’s SocioPáramo program (part of the SocioBosque program). She also works on ahupuaʻa (watershed)-based planning in Hawaiʻi, where she is originally from, and where she will begin a faculty position in July.

Fredy Grefa – yutzug@gmail.com

Ben Siegelman – ben.siegelman@duke.edu

Manuel Washington Shiguango Shiguango – manushig82@gmail.com

Daniel De la Fuente – danidlfuente@gmail.com

Fusto Daniel Santi Gualinga – urkutulumk@gmail.com

Antonia Marjorie Vargas Malavar – marjorievargas22@gmail.com

I am 31 years old, I belong to the Kichwa nationality, located in the Province of Pastaza (Ecuador), my academic title is in Engineering in Finance and Environmental Certification. My background was framed as technical support in: intercultural bilingual education, administrative and environment. As in the Bilingual Intercultural Education Development Project of the Catalan Agency for Development Cooperation (ACCD) and the National Directorate of Intercultural Bilingual Education (DINEIB), the Andean Regional Project for Intercultural Bilingual Education for the Amazon of Ecuador, Peru And Bolivia EIBAMAZ (project involving UNICEF, the National Directorate of Intercultural Bilingual Education of Ecuador and the Government of Finland), I was Administrative Analyst for the Ministry of Education of Ecuador, Participation Promotion Analyst at the Citizen Participation Council And Social Control of Ecuador and have given technical advice to the Sapara Nation of Ecuador-NASE in the Socio Bosque Program of the Ministry of the Environment of Ecuador.I take the following link (from the internet) to deepen some of the topics mentioned above:

www.youtube.com/watch?v=YvFByybymjo

www.helsinki.fi/ibe/docs/EIBAMAZ.pdf

Guatemala

Grant Murray – grant.murray@duke.edu

Nicolena Rachel VonHedemann – nvonhedemann@email.arizona.edu

Niki vonHedemann is a PhD Candidate in the School of Geography and Development at the University of Arizona. Her interests lie at the intersection of ecology and human geography, particularly the complex social, political, economic, and biophysical factors that play influence conservation and development. Since 2012 she has been working in Guatemala’s Western Highlands, investigating the social and environmental impacts of national forest incentive programs, a form of PES.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nicolena_Vonhedemann2

https://arizona.academia.edu/NikivonHedemann

Sara Nelson – nels6996@umn.edu

Sean Fitzpatrick – sean robert.fitzpatrick@duke.edu

Nina Hamilton – nina.hamilton@duke.edu

Nina is a 2nd year Master of Environmental Management candidate at Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment, with interests in conservation and development, forest governance, and participatory approaches to conservation. Prior to Duke she spent 3 years in Madagascar managing reforestation and community-based mangrove management projects, before which she obtained her BA in Biology from Kenyon College. For her Masters Project at the Nicholas School, Nina conducted community-based research in Gabon investigating local values and priorities for natural resource management in forest-dependent communities. LinkedIn profile.

Fernando Jose Recancoj Escobar – frecancoj@ecologic.org

Agricultural Engineer in Agricultural Production Systems – graduated in the University of San Carlos of Guatemala. Master’s Degree in Irrigation Engineering in Madrid, Spain. He has participated in international events on the Green Economy (Mexico) and Payment Mechanisms for Environmental Services (Peru).

Currently works for the Foundation for Ecological Development (Ecoecogic) (www.ecologic.org) as Project Technician designated for the Community Organization of the 48 Cantons of Totonicapán in Guatemala (www.48cantones.org)

Francisco Visoni – francisco.visoni@inab.gob.gt

Mexico

Liz Shapiro-Garza – elizabeth.shapiro@duke.edu

Ruxandra Popovici – ruxandra.popovici@duke.edu

Kelly Jones – Kelly.Jones@colostate.edu

Kelly Jones is an assistant professor of ecological economics in the Human Dimensions of Natural Resources department at Colorado State University. She uses economic approaches to study the effectiveness of conservation interventions and connections between nature and human wellbeing. She has ongoing research on the coupled human and natural dynamics of people and the environment in Mexico, Ethiopia, and Colorado. More information.

Beth Be – beeb@ecu.edu

Mario Hernández Trejo – mario.hernandeztrejo@manchester.ac.uk

Mario Hernández Trejo is a doctoral researcher and teaching assitant based at the Geography Department of the University of Manchester. He holds a Master’s degree in Environment and Development from the same institution. Mario carries out research on political ecology with an emphasis on the relationship between market environmentalism and the territorial organization of rural areas.

John Burrows – john.burrows@duke.edu

Kelli Iddings – kelli.iddings@duke.edu

Joaquin Saldaña – jsaldana@conafor.gob.mx

Brenda Zavala Lopez – zbrenda@hotmail.com

Carlos Marcelo Pérez González – pego_cama@yahoo.com.mx

Resendo Pérez Antonio – rprz469@gmail.com

South Africa

Sue Jacksonsue.jackson@griffith.edu.au

Sue is an Associate Professor at the Australian Rivers Institute at Griffith University in Queensland, Australia. She is a geographer with over 20 years’ experience researching the social dimensions of natural resource management in Australia, particularly those issues relating to the rights and interests of Indigenous communities. She has a strong research interest in systems of water resource governance, including customary Indigenous resource rights and values, and methods for addressing Indigenous values in environmental flow assessments and water allocation planning. Sue has studied the development of PES schemes by and for Indigenous communities in the context of community based environmental management in north Australia where Indigenous communities co-produce a range of ecosystem services, the most popularly remunerated being carbon abatement through prescribed burning of savannas. Sue is currently following developments in water marketisation in Australia and private conservation models that are of interest to Indigenous communities.

Gaële Rouillé-Kielorouille.gaele@gmail.com

Mrs. Gaële Rouillé-Kielo, 3rd year PhD candidate in social geography at the University Paris-Nanterre (France)

Since my Master’s degree, I have been working on the local “translation” of the concept of “services” in environmental projects aiming to protect water quality in Kenya. I have mostly focused on one specific case study, which is regarded as a “success story” in Kenya: the Malewa project in Lake Naivasha basin. Trying to consider the political impact of the implementation of “payments for environmental services” at a local scale, I am specifically interested in understanding how the program I am studying has influenced local people’s perceptions of their environment and roles within the water basin.

Apart from my research work, I give classes to Bachelor students in my university.

Juiet Kariuki – j.kariuki@uni-hohenheim.de

Catherine Windeycatherine.windey@uantwerpen.be

I am a PhD researcher and teaching assistant at the Institute of Development Policy and Management (IOB) of the University of Antwerp (Belgium). My research analyzes the value transformation of ‘the environment’ under the REDD+ framework and how it enacts, is informed and contested in interaction with hybrid socio-economic-ecological configurations. Empirically, I look at three case studies in the Democratic Republic of Congo, using a mixed methods approach that combines discourse analysis, qualitative methods and behavioral field experiments. Theoretically, I integrate insights from economic anthropology, critical economic geography and political ecology.

Besides, I also teach classes in research methods and ‘Governance for Development’ in the IOB master programs.

My background is in Anthropology (main) and Business Economics and Management (complementary master). Before coming back to the academia, I worked for almost four years as a research analyst/consultant in intercultural management in Paris.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Catherine_Windey

https://www.linkedin.com/in/catherinewindey/

https://www.uantwerpen.be/en/staff/catherine-windey/

Patrick Bond – pbond@mail.ngo.za

Brenna Thompson – brenna.thompson@duke.edu

Kate Abendroth – kathryn.abendroth@duke.edu

Christo Marais – cmarais@environment.gov.za

Sarah Polonsky – SPolonsky@environment.gov.za

Vietnam

Wolfram Dressler – wolfram.dressler@mail.mcgill.ca

Jonas Ibrahim Hein works as a post-doctoral researcher at the Department of Environmental Policy and Natural Resources Management at the German Development Institute/ Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE). He is a human geographer interested in the political ecology of land tenure in rural Indonesia, REDD+, environmental justice and international forest and climate politics. He also holds a lectureship at the Department of Human Geography of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, where he teaches among others classes on “conservation conflicts”. Before joining GDI in 2012, Hein worked as a researcher at the Sustainability Research Center of the University of Bremen. Hein holds a doctorate in geography from the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen (2016) and a post-graduate certificate in development cooperation from DIE (2011). Contact: jonas.hein@die-gdi.de

Kim Marion Suiseeyakimberly.marion@gmail.com

Kimberly R. Marion Suiseeya is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science and the Program in Environmental Policy and Culture at Northwestern University. She is an environmental social scientist whose research examines the interactions between norms, institutions, and justice in global forest governance to understand the conditions under which justice and injustice in forest communities are produced. Her areas of expertise include: environmental justice, global environmental governance, political ecology, and the politics of biodiversity conservation in Laos and mainland Southeast Asia. Marion Suiseeya holds a PhD in Environment from Duke University, a Masters of International Environmental Policy from the Middlebury Institute of International Studies, and a BA in International Relations and Politics from Scripps College. She has also worked as a practitioner with the IUCN, the Lao Environment and Social Project, and the Sierra Club, among others. More details and links to recent publications are available on her website (kimberlymarionsuiseeya.weebly.com) and www.presence2influence.org.

Madeline Giefer – mmgiefer@live.unc.edu

Lauren Mechak – lauren.mechak@duke.edu

Thu Thuy Pham – t.pham@cgiar.org

Dr. Pham Thu Thuy is a CIFOR Scientist and Country Representative of CIFOR in Vietnam. Dr Thuy obtained her PhD on Pro-poor Payment for Environmental Services at Charles Darwin University, Australia. Thuy has worked in the field of climate change policies, payment for environmental services and reduction of emissions from deforestation and degradation, poverty and environmental nexus, social safeguards, community-based forest management and mainstreaming gender into national forestry policies, for more than 10 years. Dr. Thuy is currently leading the Module 1 on National REDD+, climate change and forestry policies in 16 countries under CIFOR’s project on Global Comparative Study on REDD+ (GCS-REDD+). Before joining CIFOR, she worked as a consultant for The Asian Development Bank, The World Agroforestry Center, Oxfam UK, The Stockholm Environment Institute, Forest Trends and The University of Queensland.

Van Thi Hai Nguyenvan@nature.org.vn

Nguyen Thi Hai Van, M.Sc (Forest and Nature Conservation Policy)

Ms. Nguyen Thi Hai Van graduated from the Department of Environmental Science of Hanoi National University and got her M.SC from Wageningen University (the Netherlands). She joined in People and Nature Reconciliation (PanNature: http://www.nature.org.vn/en/ ) in September, 2008, right after her graduation from university. Van has worked as the coordinator of the Policy Research Program with intensive focus on studying and analysing contemporary laws and legislation on environmental protection and natural resources in Vietnam, especially on forest policies (forest governance, REDD+, PES and FLEGT/VPA). From September 2016, Van takes a new position as the Policy Program Manager.

Bernhard Huberbernhard.huber@cimonline.de

Between 2012 and 2014 I conducted PhD research (Geography, McGill) on conservation governance and ethnic minority livelihoods in two Hmong villages in Yen Bai province, Vietnam. One of these villages received extremely high levels of PES, while surrounding communes received a lot less. I studied the implementation of the nascent PES policy, and the local distribution and use of these funds, among other things.

Since 2016, I am employed as a so-called integrated expert at VNFF, the ministerial body that implements Vietnam’s PES problem. This position is funded by the German ministry of development.

Cash for Green: Payments for Ecosystem Services in the Global South

Livestream option available through WebEx

  • Meeting number: 739 693 428
  • Meeting password: PES2017

Online viewers can hold questions until the end of the presentations. If you have questions, please use the chat option to send them to “Question Manager” and they will be answered at the end.


Payments for ecosystem services (PES) provide financial incentives to landowners to manage ecosystems in ways that are thought to produce environmental benefits: greenhouse gas sequestration, biodiversity conservation, or cleaner and greater quantities of water downstream.

Based on a neoclassical economic model of direct, voluntary transactions and promoted as more efficient and effective than government regulation, PES and other market-based approaches have dominated the discourse of multilateral lending institutions, environmental NGOs and government agencies since the 1990s. PES initiatives have since been implemented at multiple scales in countries throughout the Global South. However, few, if any, existing initiatives conform to the original model.

This live streamed, public talk will explore ways in which the conceptualization and implementation of PES has been altered by grounded political, economic and cultural context through presentations by scholars and practitioners involved in six of the longest standing programs in the Global South. Understanding these alternative conceptualizations and practices of PES is vitally important for both theorizing alternative logics of the value of nature and for the pragmatic goals of designing initiatives with positive environmental and social outcomes.

The public talk will focus on these PES initiatives: