Jul 102017
 
 July 10, 2017

The Moral Attitudes and Decision-Making (MADLAB) program at the Kenan Institute for Ethics has a part in three recently published studies analyzing aspects of empathy, conformity and mind control.

Led by Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, the Chauncey Stillman Professor in Practical Ethics in the Department of Philosophy and the Kenan Institute for Ethics, research has been published in the journals Social Influence, Cognition and Nature Human Behavior. Sinnott-Armstrong is a co-author for all three studies.

“Morality is an extremely complex topic, so you can’t look at it from just one perspective,” Sinnott-Armstrong said. “The goal of MADLAB is to look at morality and ethics from a wide variety of disciplines and perspectives, which is illustrated by this recent collection of studies.”

In addition to providing new insight and research in areas of ethics, morality and science, the work of Sinnott-Armstrong and others will also help lead to philosophical papers about how these findings are relevant to broader ethical issues.

Shaping Moral Judgments Online

Included in Social Influence, Sinnott-Armstrong was part of a team to publish the study “Moral conformity in online interactions: rational justifications increase influence of peer opinions on moral judgments,” which shows how social media can shape moral judgments, noting that rational arguments can be more effective at eliciting conformity than emotional ones. Sinnott-Armstrong worked with Scott Huettel, Duke’s Jerry G. and Patricia Crawford Hubbard Professor, Duke associate in research Vlad Chituc, and Duke students Meagan Kelly and Lawrence Ngo.

The two-part study first analyzed the use of impersonal statistics such as anonymous “likes” on news stories, which showed that participants would conform to moral attitudes of others when presented with statistical information about how others respond. A second study used carefully phrased descriptions that positioned an action in a positive or negative light through emotional and rational arguments. Both cases showed how a person’s point of view might change through subtle manipulation of online interactions.

“Though it is reasonable to predict that the influence we have on each other’s opinions would be greatly diminished in this detached world,” the authors wrote, “it appears that the power of social influence is retained.”

Implicit Morality

Led by former MADLAB member Daryl Cameron, now director of the Empathy and Moral Psychology Laboratory and an assistant professor of psychology at Penn State University, “Implicit moral evaluations: A multinomial modeling approach” shares insight on how new tests and mathematical models can help capture and quantify implicit moral and empathetic judgments. Research was funded by an incubator award from the Duke Institute for Brain Sciences and findings were published in Cognition.

Sinnott-Armstrong, who helped design studies and edit findings for publication, said greater understanding of human selfishness and lack of concern for others can assist in explaining how to better teach morality. As part of the study, a test was created in which two words were quickly shown in succession – a mixture of morally wrong terms, like “stealing,” and neutral, such as “whistling.” Researchers found a morally wrong phrase that precedes a neutral one can impact a person’s interpretation of the neutral word.

“It shows part of what limits people from being too selfish, harmful, and destructive,” Sinnott-Armstrong explained. “There might be some people who act selfishly because they lack empathy, and others who act selfishly because they lack morality. Understanding the sources of those behaviors can help us figure out how to prevent or treat extreme selfishness.”

Ethics of Mind Control

Sinnott-Armstrong is among an interdisciplinary group of researchers from Duke, the University of Pennsylvania and American University that are calling for new safeguards to guide treatments and protect patients during interventions for mental illnesses and neurological disorders.

In a perspective article published in the journal Nature Human Behavior, “Mind control as a guide for the mind” argues that these interventions should now be thought of as a form of “mind control.” As such, neuroscientists, clinicians and bioethicists should begin looking toward the engineering discipline of control theory as a way to better understand the relationship between brain physiology and mental states. The work began as discussions at Duke’s Summer Seminars in Neuroscience and Philosophy, co-directed by Sinnott-Armstrong and Felipe De Brigard, funded by the John Templeton Foundation.

“We need to think hard about the ensuing ethical issues regarding autonomy, privacy, equality, and enhancement,” Sinnott-Armstrong said.

Read more about the research in this story.

Jul 032017
 
 July 3, 2017

Jana Schaich Borg, co-director of the Moral Attitudes and Decision-Making Lab at the Kenan Institute for Ethics, is part of a team of researchers that recently released new findings on how the human brain handles decisions of altruism and empathy.

Published in the June 2017 issue of Brain and Behavior, Schaich Borg and others studied how rats would make decisions that could negatively impact them individually while preventing another rat from being harmed. In the research, rats could enter a brightly-lit chamber in order for another to not receive an electrical shock.

“The brain regions that encoded what the rat was choosing to do were the same ones we found in other studies to be involved in human empathy and moral decision making,” Schaich Borg told Duke Today. “It’s fascinating that rats are using the same brain regions that we seem to be using, and it suggests that rats provide a promising avenue for better understanding the way the human brain makes decisions to help others.”

Findings from the study have the potential to help better determine how the bran works by isolating regions one at a time, with impacts on understanding of psychopathy and addiction. In addition to her work with Kenan’s MADLAB, Schaich Borg also serves as an assistant research professor at Duke’s Social Science Research Institute and the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience.

For more information about the study, which was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship, the Imitatio Foundation, an Information Initiative at Duke Research Incubator Award, the One Mind Institute (IMHRO) Rising Star Award, the National Institutes of Health (R01MH102638) and the NARSAD Distinguished Scientist Award, visit Duke Today.

Jun 242017
 
 June 24, 2017

Is it moral to respect the wishes of the dead, above the living? In an essay for Aeon, Barry Lam, a Humanities-Writ Large Fellow who has worked in coordination with the Kenan Institute for Ethics, explores the moral and ethical sides of lasting money and power.

As a visiting faculty fellow from Vassar College, Lam worked in the past academic year with Chauncey Stillman Professor in Practical Ethics Walter Sinnott-Armstrong on an audio documentary project, Hi-Phi Nation. The podcast series, produced at Kenan’s offices on Duke’s East Campus, uses philosophical examination of ideas to tell broader stories of human life.

In his essay, Lam builds off the first episode of Hi-Phi Nation which follows the story of the Hershey fortune to show how a 19th century industrialist constructed a business structure to ensure that his idiosyncratic wishes would be fulfilled hundreds of years after his death.

“I believe we honour the wishes of the dead out of a misplaced sense of moral duty, as we would feel if we made a deathbed promise to a loved one,” Lam writes.

Learn more about Lam’s Hi-Phi Nation and ethics of podcasting in this interview for Team Kenan’s Audible Ethics.

Jun 232017
 
 June 23, 2017

Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, the Chauncey Stillman Professor in Practical Ethics in the Department of Philosophy and the Kenan Institute for Ethics, was recently featured in Duke Magazine as part of a highlight on a course in neuroethics.

The class, which can be taken toward earning an Ethics Certificate, focuses on emerging ethical controversies concurrent with advances in neuroscience, covering biological bases of morality, emotions and decision-making and more. Sinnott-Armstrong, who leads Kenan’s Moral Attitudes and Decision-Making Lab, co-teaches a class of 40 students with Scott Huettel, professor of psychology and neuroscience.

As part of the course, Sinnott-Armstrong and Huettel encourage collaborative work among students, and as part of a final project this spring, allowed students to co-write papers to encourage broader thinking and understanding of course topics.

“There’s only one thing worse than a neuroscientist who thinks they know philosophy, and that’s a philosopher who thinks they know neuroscience,” Sinnott-Armstrong told Duke Magazine. “You don’t want these students to leave thinking they’ve mastered all the topics.”

For more information about Sinnott-Armstrong’s involvement in the nueroethics course, see this story.

Jun 202017
 
 June 20, 2017

The Kenan Institute for Ethics has opened a new library space as a resource for the Duke community.

Found in 102 West Duke Building, the library features more than 900 works of fiction and non-fiction, including published selections from all faculty affiliated with Kenan, selections from staff Ethics Books Clubs from across campus, as well as other scholars and writers. The library is named in honor of Robert and Sara Pickus, the parents of Noah Pickus, who served as Kenan’s director from 2007 to 2017.

Students, faculty and staff are encouraged to come by the Institute and visit the library. Beginning in the fall semester, books can be checked out by Duke community members. A searchable list of books can be found on the library’s webpage.

Along with books written by faculty, the library also includes a collection of books published as the capstone project for Kenan’s Ethics Certificate Program. The most recent release, “Gross! Ethical Issues Surrounding Disgust,” included chapters written by nine students and co-edited by Professor Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and recent graduate Sophie Katz. Previous Ethics Certificate publications explored drugs and addiction, crime and punishment, war and terrorism, and moral and political disagreement.

Have an ethics-focused non-fiction or fiction book you’d like to recommend for the library? Email kie@duke.edu.

 

 

Jun 072017
 
 June 7, 2017

A former Kenan TA, Graduate Fellow and researcher with the Kenan Institute’s Moral Attitudes and Decision-Making Lab (MADLAB) and Rethinking Regulation program will spend the 2017-2018 academic year teaching ethics in Canada.

Aaron Ancell, who has been a part of research in civility in public discourse and co-authored a paper on regulation and democratic theory among other work, will act as the Postdoctoral Fellow in Ethics for the University of Toronto’s Centre for Ethics. He’ll share his expertise in political philosophy and ethics through research and teaching two classes at the college.

“Kenan has been one of the most important parts of my experience at Duke,” Ancell said. “It’s easy to get lost in the particular questions, frameworks, and debates of one’s own discipline and to lose sight of how one’s research fits into the bigger picture, but my involvement with Kenan has left me with a much better view of that big picture.”

Ancell’s dissertation, “Public Unreason: Essays on Political Disagreement,” advances research on political disagreements informed by social epistemology and psychology. All four of Ancell’s dissertation committee members (Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Allen Buchanan, Wayne Norman, and David Wong) have affiliation with the Kenan Institute. Ancell defends his dissertation this September.

Jun 062017
 
 June 6, 2017

The co-director of the Kenan Institute for Ethics’ Moral Attitudes and Decision-Making Lab is featured in a special 10th anniversary issue of GIST Magazine, produced by Duke’s Social Science Research Institute (SSRI).

Jana Schaich Borg was among attendees at Kenan’s “Ethics, Codes, and Learning” symposium in April 2017.

In a Q&A with the magazine, Jana Schaich Borg, who also serves as an assistant research professor at SSRI, shares insight on what it’s like to teach one of the most popular Massive Open Online Courses on learning site, Coursera, and what it takes to be a successful data scientist. Her work with Kenan and at Duke has included research on how and why humans and animals make social decisions, including moral decisions.

“It is very difficult for me to get my head wrapped around the fact that humans intentionally hurt each other,” Borg said in the interview. “The only way I could handle learning about such events is if I tried to do something to stop them or at least understand them.”

Since 2010, Borg has co-authored seven publications with Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, the Chauncey Stillman Professor in Practical Ethics in the Department of Philosophy and the Kenan Institute for Ethics, who directs the Moral Attitudes and Decsion-Making Lab. Their most recent work, “Distinct neuronal patterns of positive and negative moral processing in psychopathy,” was published last year in Cognitive, Affective, & Behaviorial Neuroscience.

See Jana Schaich Borg’s Q&A in the latest issue of GIST.

Apr 112017
 
 April 11, 2017

Despite their opposing political viewpoints, John Hood and Leslie Winner encourage others to look past the heated polarization of today’s politics.

As Kenan Institute for Ethics’ Practitioners-in-Residence from April 3 to 7, the pair demonstrated how to work across ideological lines without compromising one’s own beliefs while meeting with students, faculty, staff and the public. A week-long series of events was organized through Kenan, the Center for Political Leadership, Innovation, and Service (POLIS) and the Policy Bridge.

Throughout their week on campus, Hood and Winner shared insight with the Duke and Durham community. Read more about their visit in this Duke Today story.

Watch Hood and Winner’s public talk, “Finding Common Ground in a Polarized World”:

Mar 082017
 
 March 8, 2017

For nearly a century, the cartoons in The New Yorker have been the standard for urbane wit. Now a Duke professor of computer science has shown he meets that standard.

Vincent Conitzer, part of the Kenan Institute for Ethics’ MADLAB, was the recent winner of a weekly contest to caption drawings seen in the magazine. Conitzer, the Kimberly J. Jenkins University Professor of New Technologies and professor of Computer Science and economics, provided the winning entry for a one-sentence exchange between two sharks: “The doctor said it might help me quit.”

Learn about Conitzer’s entry in this Duke Today story.

Feb 082017
 
 February 8, 2017  Tagged with:

how-to-ask-revA team of researchers from the Kenan Institute for Ethics was recently awarded funding as part of a project called “Towards a Culture of Questioning,” an effort to consider how asking the right kind of questions can make political discussion more productive.

Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, the Chauncey Stillman Professor in Practical Ethics in the Department of Philosophy and the Kenan Institute for Ethics, and director of Kenan’s Moral Attitudes and Decision-Making Program, is acting as principal investigator for a team that includes:

  • Adjunct Assistant Professor Jesse Summers (co-principle investigator)
  • Postdoctoral researcher Jordan Carpenter
  • Aaron Ancell, a Ph.D. candidate in Philosophy and a former Kenan Graduate Fellow

Grant funding comes from the University of Connecticut’s Humanities Institute, funded by the John Templeton Foundation. “A Healthier Q&A” is one of 10 projects receiving funding to explore the landscape of American discourse and create strategies to spur and sustain open-minded, reasonable and well-informed debate and dialogue.

Duke’s team will work to determine which questions, and which contexts, produce humility and civility in public discourse, and which produce polarization and inflexibility. The goal is to find ways to promote a culture of democratically engaged inquiry. Ultimately, the research team hopes to train others to ask questions that lead to mutual appreciation and productive dialogue.

The project is also one of the 2017-2018 Bass Connections teams and will include undergraduate and graduate Duke students.